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Red spider lily
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Amaryllidoideae
Genus: Lycoris

L. radiata

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Binomial name
Lycoris radiata

(L'Hér.) Herb.

  • Amaryllis radiata L'Hér.
  • Lycoris terracianii Dammann
  • Nerine japonica Miq.
  • Nerine radiata (L'Hér.) Sweet
  • Orexis radiata (L'Hér.) Salisb.

Lycoris radiata, known as the red spider lily, red magic lily, corpse flower, or equinox flower, is a plant in the amaryllis family, Amaryllidaceae, subfamily Amaryllidoideae.[3] Originally from Trung Quốc, nhật bản, Korea and Nepal[1] and from there lớn the United States and elsewhere. It is considered naturalized in Seychelles and in the Ryukyu Islands.[4] It flowers in the late summer or autumn, often in response lớn heavy rainfall. The common name hurricane lily refers lớn this characteristic,[5] as bởi other common names, such as resurrection lily;[5] these may be used for the genus as a whole.


A red spider lily flower in full-bloom
A girl with a bouquet of red spider lily flowers

Lycoris radiata is a bulbous perennial with showy, bright-red flowers. When in full bloom, spindly stamens, likened lớn the image of spider legs, extend slightly upward and outward from the flower's center.[6] The flowers of the plant generally appear around late August lớn early September, before the leaves fully develop, on scapes rising 30–70 centimetres (12–28 in) from the ground. Four lớn six 2-inch long flowers, arranged in umbels, perch atop each plant stalk.[7] Individual flowers are irregular, with narrow segments which curve backwards.[8] The leaves, which tend lớn emerge in October, are a greyish-green color, parallel-sided, 0.5–1 cm (1438 in) wide and feature a paler central stripe. The plant retains its leaves throughout the winter season, but will begin lớn shed them away as temperatures start lớn warm in late spring.[7]


The presumed original khuông of Lycoris radiata, known as L. radiata var. pumila, occurs only in Trung Quốc. It is a diploid, with 11 pairs of chromosomes (2N = 22), and is able lớn reproduce by seed. Triploid forms, with 33 chromosomes, are known as L. radiata var. radiata. These are widespread in Trung Quốc and also in nhật bản, from where the species was introduced into cultivation in America and elsewhere. The triploid forms are sterile, and reproduce only vegetatively, via bulbs. The Japanese triploids are genetically uniform. It has been suggested that they were introduced into nhật bản from Trung Quốc along with rice cultivation.[9]

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In phylogenetic analyses based on chloroplast genes, Hori et al. found that all the other species of Lycoris they examined were nested within Lycoris radiata. They suggest that the "species" of Lycoris presently recognized may not be distinct.[9]


All plant species belonging lớn the genus Lycoris, including L. radiata, are native lớn East Asia.[10] The plant was first introduced into the United States in 1854 following the signing of the Treaty of Kanagawa, a peace treaty brokered between the United States of America and nhật bản which effectively opened up Japanese ports for trade with the U.S.[11] It is alleged that Captain William Roberts, a botany enthusiast and an ally of Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry of the U.S Navy, returned lớn the U.S with only three bulbs of the red spider lily from this travels abroad.[12] The bulbs were then planted by his niece who found that they did not bloom until after the first good rain in the fall season. L. radiata has since become naturalized in North Carolina, Texas, Oklahoma, and many other southern states of the US. Since the Japanese variety of L. radiata is a sterile triploid, the introduced plants were also sterile and could only reproduce via bulb division. Today, red spider lilies are appreciated as ornamental and medicinal plants in various countries all across Asia, Europe and in the United States.[10]

Before being placed into the ground, L. radiata bulbs should be stored in a dry environment between 7–13 °C (45–55 °F). The bulbs are ideally planted during the spring in rich, well-drained soil (e.g. sandy with some clay), 20 cm (8 in) deep and 15–30 cm (6–12 in) apart from one another. When possible L. radiata ought lớn be placed in plots that either receive ample sunlight or are partially shaded. Once planted, the bulbs are best left undisturbed.[13] Lycoris radiata is not frost-hardy in countries lượt thích England, and ví can only be grown under glass or in a very sheltered environment. In warm-summer climates such as the U.S. east of the Rocky Mountains, where there is sufficient summer heat lớn harden off the bulbs, the plants are hardy lớn around −18 °C (0 °F).[citation needed] Like other plants in the genus Lycoris, L. radiata remains dormant during the summer season, flowering on leafless scapes once the summer begins lớn transition into the fall.[10] Red spider lilies are sometimes referred lớn as magic lilies because It is said that the radiant red flowers appear lớn bloom "magically" from their unremarkably bare stalks.[14] Furthermore, in the environments in which they are commonly grown, L. radiata tend lớn bloom in step with the coming of the rainy season, and or the coming of the hurricane season, as well as the fall equinox. As such, spider lilies are also known as hurricane lilies or equinox lilies.[13]

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Toxins and medicinal applications[edit]

Such is the matter regarding all plants belonging lớn the genus Lycoris, the bulbs of Lycoris radiata contain notable levels of toxicity. The toxicity of the bulbs may be attributed lớn the presence of the alkaloid, lycorine. If ingested, Lycoris radiata bulbs can cause a host of medical complications such as diarrhea, vomiting, convulsions and even death when cases are severe.[5] L. radiata plants also contain the alkaloid galantamine, an alkaloid compound known for its effectiveness against conditions of cognitive decline. Among other reasons, L.radiata plant populations in Trung Quốc have been intentionally cared for as ví that galantamine may be harvested from the bulbs and processed into medicines developed lớn combat the ill-effects of Alzheimer's disease.[5] Of the many alkaloids produced by plants in the amaryllidaceae family, galantamine is noteworthy because it has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USDA) for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.[15] Plants of the amaryllis family are all known lớn contain varying quantities of naturally occurring galantamine. The compound can be extracted in trace amounts from all throughout the leaves and roots of L. radiata, but is most abundantly found within the bulbs.[15]

In East Asian culture[edit]

The Japanese common name for Lycoris radiata, higanbana (ヒガンバナ, 彼岸花),[16] literally means "flower of higan (Buddhist holiday around the autumnal equinox)."[16] Another popular Japanese name is manjushage (曼珠沙華)[16] (or manjushake[17]), taken from the name of a mythical flower described in Chinese translation of the Lotus Sutra. It is called by over 50 other local names in nhật bản.[17] Lycoris radiata first came lớn nhật bản from Trung Quốc around 700 A.D.[18] The flower has since become a cultural symbol, representing the arrival of fall. Red spider lilies are frequently seen in nhật bản growing along roadways and around the perimeters of rice fields and houses. The lilies are purposefully planted near rice fields in order lớn deter mice and other animals from invading the rice paddies; the poisonous bulbs are thought lớn keep the unwanted critters away.[5]

In accordance with established traditions, many practitioners of Buddhism will celebrate the arrival of fall with a ceremony at the tombs of their ancestors. In order lớn pay tribute lớn the dead, red spider lilies are commonly planted on and around grave sites as a part of this ceremonial practice.[18] Since these scarlet flowers usually bloom near cemeteries around the time of the autumnal equinox, they are described in Chinese and Japanese translations of the Lotus Sutra as ominous flowers that grow in Hell, (Chinese: 黃泉), and guide the dead into the next reincarnation. Mock Joya relates their association with Japanese Christian martyrs in medieval times; their places of martyrdom were said lớn be marked by these flowers.[19] Because red spider lilies are associated with death, it is believed that one should never give a bouquet of these flowers.[18] Some legends have it that if you see someone whom you may never meet again, these flowers will bloom along the paths you take. Perhaps because of these sorrowful legends, Japanese people often use these flowers in funerals. Higanbana can be literally taken as the higan (the other or that shore of Sanzu River) flower, decorative and enjoyable, flower of the afterlife in gokuraku jyōdo (極楽浄土, gokuraku jyōdo).


  1. ^ a b "Lycoris radiata (L'Hér.) Herb., Bot. Mag. 47: t. 2113, p. 5 (1819)". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2022. Retrieved 12 November 2022.
  2. ^ "Lycoris radiata (L'Hér.) Herb". World Flora Online. The World Flora Online Consortium. 2022. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  3. ^ Stevens, P..F., Angiosperm Phylogeny Website: Asparagales: Amaryllidoideae
  4. ^ Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  5. ^ a b c d e Knox, Gary W. (2020-11-05). "Hurricane Lilies, Lycoris Species, in Florida". Environmental Horticulture Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. ENH1038/EP255. Retrieved 2022-12-08.
  6. ^ Klingaman, G. (2000, August 25). Plant of the week. Spiderlily, Red. Retrieved December 5, 2022, from https://www.uaex.uada.edu/yard-garden/resource-library/plant-week/red-spiderlily.aspx
  7. ^ a b Equinox Flower Lycoris radiata. Equinox Flower - Lycoris radiata | North Carolina Extension Gardener Plant Toolbox. (n.d.). Retrieved December 5, 2022, from https://plants.ces.ncsu.edu/plants/lycoris-radiata/common-name/equinox-flower/
  8. ^ Mathew, Brian (1978), The Larger Bulbs, London: B.T. Batsford (in association with the Royal Horticultural Society), ISBN 978-0-7134-1246-8
  9. ^ a b Hori, TA; Hayashi, A; Sasanuma, T & Kurita, S (2006), "Genetic variations in the chloroplast genome and phylogenetic clustering of Lycoris species", Genes Genet. Syst., 81 (4): 243–253, doi:10.1266/ggs.81.243, PMID 17038796
  10. ^ a b c Cai, J., Fan, J., Wei, X., & Zhang, L. (2019). A three-dimensional analysis of summer dormancy in the red spider lily (Lycoris radiata). HortScience, 54(9), 1459-1464.
  11. ^ Atsumi, T., & Bernhofen, D. M. (2011). The effects of the unequal treaties on normative, economic and institutional changes in 19th century Japan. mãng cầu.
  12. ^ Mathewes, P.. (2020, July 22). Southern Garden History Society. Retrieved December 6, 2022, from https://southerngardenhistory.org/plant-profiles/spider-lily-lycoris-radiata/
  13. ^ a b Equinox Flower Lycoris radiata. Equinox Flower - Lycoris radiata | North Carolina Extension Gardener Plant Toolbox. (n.d.). Retrieved December 5, 2022, from https://plants.ces.ncsu.edu/plants/lycoris-radiata/common-name/equinox-flower/
  14. ^ Klingaman, G. (2000, August 25). Plant of the week. Spiderlily, Red. Retrieved December 5, 2022, from https://www.uaex.uada.edu/yard-garden/resource-library/plant-week/red-spiderlily.aspx
  15. ^ a b Park, C. H., Yeo, H. J., Park, Y. E., Baek, S. A., Kim, J. K., & Park, S. U. (2019). Transcriptome analysis and metabolic profiling of Lycoris radiata. Biology, 8(3), 63.
  16. ^ a b c Inoue, Tomoharu; Nagai, Shin (2015). "Influence of temperature change on plant tourism in Japan: a case study of the flowering of Lycoris radiata (red spider lily)" 気温変化が開花観光に与える影響:ヒガンバナの開花に関した事例研究. Japanese Journal of Biometeorology 日本生気象学会雑誌 (in English and Japanese). 52 (4): 175–184. doi:10.11227/seikisho.52.175. eISSN 1347-7617 – via J-STAGE. p. 176.
  17. ^ a b Ito, Tokutaro (1911-12-03). "Lycoris radiata" まんじゅしゃけ. Icones Plantarum Japonicarum 大日本植物圖彙 (in Japanese and English). Tokyo, Japan: Ito Botanical Institute 大日本植物図彙出版社. I (2) 5: 1. doi:10.11501/1908225. JPNO 94090552. Retrieved 2023-05-19.
  18. ^ a b c Klingaman, G. (2000, August 25). Plant of the week. Spiderlily, Red. Retrieved December 5, 2022, from https://www.uaex.uada.edu/yard-garden/resource-library/plant-week/red-spiderlily.aspx
  19. ^ Joya, Mock (2017-07-12) [1985]. Japan and Things Japanese. ISBN 9781136221866.

External links[edit]

  • Media related lớn Lycoris radiata at Wikimedia Commons
  • "Lycoris radiata." Backyard Gardeners. 2008. Backyard Gardeners. 13 Apr 2009 <http://www.backyardgardener.com/plantname/pda_deae.html>.
  • "Lycoris radiata Herbert." Natural Resource Conservation Service. 13 Apr 2009. USDA. 13 Apr 2009 <http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=LYRA>.
  • Red Spider Lily Photo Gallery
  • Li, S; Chen, C; Zhang, H; Guo, H; Wang, H; Wang, L; Zhang, X; Hua, S; Yu, J; Xiao, P.. (July 2005). "Identification of natural compounds with antiviral activities against SARS-associated coronavirus". Antiviral Research. 67 (1): 18–23. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2005.02.007. PMC 7114104. PMID 15885816.
  • "Lycoris radiata". Plants for a Future.